Category: Chattel slavery

Chattel slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalized, de jure slavery. In a broader sense, however, the word slavery may also refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against their own will. Scholars also use the more generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour to refer to such situations.

Slavery existed in many culturesdating back to early human civilizations. Slavery was legal in most societies at some time in the past but is now outlawed in all recognized countries. Nevertheless, there are an estimated In other areas, slavery continues through practices such as debt bondagethe most widespread form of slavery today; [2] serfdom ; domestic servants kept in captivity; certain adoptions in which children are forced to work as slaves; child soldiers ; and forced marriage.

The word slave is derived from the ethnonym ethnic name Slav.

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It arrived in English via the Old French sclave. At a very early medieval date, when Christian government in most of Europe had collapsed, trading expeditions to eastern Europe brought back Slavs as slaves. There is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as " unfree labourer " or enslaved personrather than "slave", should be used when describing the victims of slavery. According to those proposing a change in terminology, slave perpetuates the crime of slavery in language; by reducing its victims to a nonhuman noun instead of "carry[ing] them forward as people, not the property that they were".

Other historians prefer slave because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it accurately reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for.

Why Did Europeans Enslave Africans?

Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage, is a form of unfree labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. Chattel slavery, also called traditional slaveryis so named because people are treated as the chattel personal property of the owner and are bought and sold as commodities.

Typically, under the chattel slave system, children inherited slave status via the mother partus sequitur ventrem. Even when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the legal system of any internationally recognized government. Forced labour, or unfree labour, is sometimes used to describe an individual who is forced to work against their own will, under threat of violence or other punishment, but the generic term unfree labour is also used to describe chattel slavery, as well as any other situation in which a person is obliged to work against their own will, and a person's ability to work productively is under the complete control of another person.

“Wages Slavery and Chattel Slavery”

While some unfree labourers, such as serfshave substantive, de jure legal or traditional rights, they also have no ability to terminate the arrangements under which they work and are frequently subject to forms of coercion, violence, and restrictions on their activities and movement outside their place of work.

Human trafficking primarily involves women and children forced into prostitution and is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, Cambodia, India, Brazil and Mexico having been identified as leading hotspots of commercial sexual exploitation of children. InHuman Rights Watch estimated thattochildren served as soldiers in current conflicts.

Forced marriages or early marriages are often considered types of slavery. Forced marriage continues to be practiced in parts of the world including some parts of Asia and Africa and in immigrant communities in the West. Economists have attempted to model the circumstances under which slavery and variants such as serfdom appear and disappear. One observation is that slavery becomes more desirable for landowners where land is abundant but labour is scarce, such that rent is depressed and paid workers can demand high wages.

chattel slavery

If the opposite holds true, then it becomes more costly for landowners to have guards for the slaves than to employ paid workers who can only demand low wages because of the amount of competition. Slavery is more common when the labor done is relatively simple and thus easy to supervise, such as large-scale growing of a single crop, like sugar and cotton, in which output was based on economies of scale. This enables such systems of labor, such as the gang system in the United States, to become prominent on large plantations where field hands were monitored and worked with factory-like precision.

For example, each work gang was based on an internal division of labour that assigned every member of the gang to a precise task and simultaneously made their own performance dependent on the actions of the others. The hoe hands chopped out the weeds that surrounded the cotton plants as well as excessive sprouts.

The plow gangs followed behind, stirring the soil near the rows of cotton plants and tossing it back around the plants.

Thus, the gang system worked like an assembly line. Since the 18th century, critics have argued that slavery tends to retard technological advancement because the focus is on increasing the number of slaves doing simple tasks rather than upgrading the efficiency of labour.Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavementprimarily of Africans and African Americansthat existed in the United States of America from the beginning of the nation in until passage of the Thirteenth Amendment in Slavery had been practiced in British America from early colonial daysand was legal in all thirteen colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in Under the law, an enslaved person was treated as property and could be bought, sold, or given away.

Slavery lasted in about half of U. As an economic system, slavery was largely replaced by sharecropping and convict leasing. By the time of the American Revolution —the status of enslaved people had been institutionalized as a racial caste associated with African ancestry.

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Constitution was the most contentious issue during its drafting. Although the creators of the Constitution never used the word "slavery", the final document, through the three-fifths clausegave slave-owners disproportionate political power. All Northern states had abolished slavery in some way by ; sometimes, abolition was a gradual process, and hundreds of people were still enslaved in the Northern states as late as the Census.

Some slaveowners—primarily in the Upper South— freed the people they had enslaved, and philanthropists and charitable groups bought and freed other enslaved people. The Atlantic slave trade was outlawed by individual states beginning during the American Revolution. The import-trade was banned by Congress inalthough smuggling was common thereafter.

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The rapid expansion of the cotton industry in the Deep South after the invention of the cotton gin greatly increased demand for the labor of enslaved people, and the Southern states continued as slave societies. Those states attempted to extend slavery into the new western territories to keep their share of political power in the nation.

The United States became ever more polarized over the issue of slavery, split into slave and free states. Driven by labor demands from new cotton plantations in the Deep Souththe northern slave states sold over a million enslaved people who were taken to the Deep South in a forced migration. The total population of enslaved people in the South eventually reached four million. The new territories acquired via the Louisiana purchase and the Mexican cession were the subject of major political crises and compromises.

Bythe newly-rich, cotton-growing South was threatening to secede from the Unionand tensions continued to rise. Slavery was defended in the South as a "positive good"and large Protestant denominations split over the slavery issue into regional organizations of the North and South.

When Abraham Lincoln won the election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, seven states broke away to form the Confederacy.

Four additional slave states then seceded after Lincoln requested arms from them to make a retaliatory strike.Chattel slavery: an ancient abuse persists…. Chattel slavery is what most people have in mind when they think of the kind of slavery that existed in the United States before the Civil War, and that existed legally throughout many parts of the world as far back as recorded history.

Shamefully, this exact kind of slavery still exists today, mostly in the East African countries of Mauritania and Sudan. While this practice is probably the least prevalent of the contemporary forms of slavery, still many thousands of people are so enslaved.

Chattel slavery in Mauritania and Sudan is quite gruesome. These two countries divide the African and Arab cultures. A person can become the property of another for life, bought, traded, inherited or acquired as a gift. Girls as young as ten are being captured on raids of villages. To prevent escape they are branded like cattle with hot metal objects.

Female genital mutilation and castration are frequently imposed punishments.

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Republic of the Sudan This war torn country has seen unending civil strife in recent decades, including the genocide in Darfur. In Sudan, slavery is making a comeback as the result of a war waged over the past twelve years by the Muslim north against the Christians and Animists in the south.

Government-armed Arab militias are known to kill the men and enslave the women and children as personal property or to march them north to be auctioned off and sold.

Anti-Slavery International reports that there is probably no village in the north without kidnapped black slaves. Gasper Biro, a special UN human rights monitor, has reported that the price of slavery has changed over time. Ina woman or child could be bought from the Dinka tribe — an exceedingly tall and proud pastoral people of the Nile, could be bought for ninety dollars. Although the national government has repeatedly banned the practice, most recently inmany human rights group see this as mere window-dressing with little enforcement effort.

The number of slaves in the country is not known exactly, and estimates range widely. At least 90, darker-skinned Africans still live as the property of the Muslim Berber communities.

This percentage of slaves is the highest in the world. These slaves are chattel. They are used for house or farm labor, for sex, and for breeding.Slaverycondition in which one human being was owned by another. A slave was considered by law as property, or chatteland was deprived of most of the rights ordinarily held by free persons.

There is no consensus on what a slave was or on how the institution of slavery should be defined. Nevertheless, there is general agreement among historians, anthropologists, economists, sociologists, and others who study slavery that most of the following characteristics should be present in order to term a person a slave.

The slave was a species of property ; thus, he belonged to someone else. In some societies slaves were considered movable property, in others immovable property, like real estate.

They were objects of the law, not its subjects. Thus, like an ox or an ax, the slave was not ordinarily held responsible for what he did.

He was not personally liable for torts or contracts. The slave usually had few rights and always fewer than his owner, but there were not many societies in which he had absolutely none. As there are limits in most societies on the extent to which animals may be abused, so there were limits in most societies on how much a slave could be abused. The slave was removed from lines of natal descent.

Legally, and often socially, he had no kin. No relatives could stand up for his rights or get vengeance for him. Slavery was a form of dependent labour performed by a nonfamily member. The slave was deprived of personal liberty and the right to move about geographically as he desired. There were likely to be limits on his capacity to make choices with regard to his occupation and sexual partners as well.

Slavery was usually, but not always, involuntary. Slaves were generated in many ways. Probably the most frequent was capture in wareither by design, as a form of incentive to warriors, or as an accidental by-product, as a way of disposing of enemy troops or civilians. Others were kidnapped on slave-raiding or piracy expeditions. Many slaves were the offspring of slaves. Some people were enslaved as a punishment for crime or debt, others were sold into slavery by their parents, other relatives, or even spouses, sometimes to satisfy debts, sometimes to escape starvation.

A variant on the selling of children was the exposure, either real or fictitious, of unwanted children, who were then rescued by others and made slaves. Another source of slavery was self-sale, undertaken sometimes to obtain an elite position, sometimes to escape destitution.

Slavery existed in a large number of past societies whose general characteristics are well known.

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It was rare among primitive peoples, such as the hunter-gatherer societies, because for slavery to flourish, social differentiation or stratification was essential. Also essential was an economic surplus, for slaves were often consumption goods who themselves had to be maintained rather than productive assets who generated income for their owner.

Surplus was also essential in slave systems where the owners expected economic gain from slave ownership. Ordinarily there had to be a perceived labour shortage, for otherwise it is unlikely that most people would bother to acquire or to keep slaves.

Free land, and more generally, open resources, were often a prerequisite for slavery; in most cases where there were no open resources, non-slaves could be found who would fulfill the same social functions at lower cost.

Last, some centralized governmental institutions willing to enforce slave laws had to exist, or else the property aspects of slavery were likely to be chimerical.

Most of these conditions had to be present in order for slavery to exist in a society; if they all were, until the abolition movement of the 19th century swept throughout most of the world, it was almost certain that slavery would be present.

There have been two basic types of slavery throughout recorded history. The most common has been what is called household, patriarchal, or domestic slavery. Although domestic slaves occasionally worked outside the household, for example, in haying or harvesting, their primary function was that of menials who served their owners in their homes or wherever else the owners might be, such as in military service. Slaves often were a consumption-oriented status symbol for their owners, who in many societies spent much of their surplus on slaves.

Household slaves sometimes merged in varying degrees with the families of their owners, so that boys became adopted sons or women became concubines or wives who gave birth to heirs. Temple slavery, state slavery, and military slavery were relatively rare and distinct from domestic slavery, but in a very broad outline they can be categorized as the household slaves of a temple or the state.Skip Global Navigation Jump to section navigation.

Traditional slavery, often called chattel slavery, is probably the least prevalent of the contemporary forms of slavery.

According to the American Anti-Slavery Groupin Mauritania—where slavery was legally abolished in —90, darker-skinned Africans still live as the property of the Muslim Berber communities.

Such chattel slaves are used for their labor, sex, and breeding, and they are exchanged for camels, trucks, guns and money. Children of chattel slaves remain the property of their master. In Sudan, slavery is making a comeback as the result of a war waged over the past twelve years by the Muslim north against the Christians and Animists in the south.

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Sudan means "land of the blacks" in Arabic, and for centuries black Africans were abducted in Sudan as part of the Arabian slave trade. Anti-Slavery Group researchers have described a revival of a racially-based slave trade, where armed northern militias raid the southern civilian villages for slaves.

Reports to the UN Commission on Human Rights have underscored the racial aspect of such practices: victims are exclusively persons belonging to the indigenous tribes of the Nuba Mountains darker-skinned Africans.

Government-armed Arab militias are known to kill the men and enslave the women and children as personal property or to march them north to be auctioned off and sold.

What Is Chattel Slavery?

The Feminist Sexual Ethics Project. Traditional or Chattel Slavery Traditional slavery, often called chattel slavery, is probably the least prevalent of the contemporary forms of slavery. Forms of Contemporary Slavery. Debate on Trafficking and Sex-Slavery.Slavery refers to a condition in which individuals are owned by others, who control where they live and at what they work.

Slavery had previously existed throughout history, in many times and most places. The ancient Greeks, the Romans, Incas and Aztecs all had slaves. To be a slave is to be owned by another person. A slave is a human being classed as property and who is forced to work for nothing. An enslaved person is a human being who is made to be a slave. This language is often used instead of the word slave, to refer to the person and their experiences and to avoid the use of dehumanising language.

A chattel slave is an enslaved person who is owned for ever and whose children and children's children are automatically enslaved. Chattel slaves are individuals treated as complete property, to be bought and sold. Chattel slavery was supported and made legal by European governments and monarchs. This type of enslavement was practised in European colonies, from the sixteenth century onwards.

Slavery Home What is Slavery? Suppressing the trade Slavery Timeline. What is Slavery?The condition in which one person is owned as property by another and is under the owner's control, especially in involuntary servitude. A mode of production in which slaves constitute the principal workforce.

A condition of hard work and subjection: wage slavery. Law the state or condition of being a slave; a civil relationship whereby one person has absolute power over another and controls his life, liberty, and fortune. Also helotage, helotry. Switch to new thesaurus. A state of subjugation to an owner or master: bondageenslavementhelotryserfdomservilenessservilityservitudethrallthralldomvilleinageyoke.

Sklaverei Sklavenarbeit. In the nineteenth century many Africans were sold as slaves in the United States. He has a slave who types his letters and organizes his life for him. I've been slaving away for you all day while you sit and watch television.

Her job is sheer slavery.

chattel slavery

Mentioned in? References in classic literature? Primitive communism, chattel slaveryserf slavery, and wage slavery were necessary stepping-stones in the evolution of society. View in context. They have purchased your slave judges, they have debauched your slave legislatures, and they have forced to worse horrors than chattel slavery your slave boys and girls.

Here was a population, low-class and mostly foreign, hanging always on the verge of starvation, and dependent for its opportunities of life upon the whim of men every bit as brutal and unscrupulous as the old-time slave drivers; under such circumstances immorality was exactly as inevitable, and as prevalent, as it was under the system of chattel slavery. Things that were quite unspeakable went on there in the packing houses all the time, and were taken for granted by everybody; only they did not show, as in the old slavery times, because there was no difference in color between master and slave.

It took all of the 19th century, from Toussaint's Haiti in the s to Lincoln's USA in theto Brazil and Cuba in the s, to uproot chattel slavery from the modern world. Sir Hilary McD.

chattel slavery

Beckles: "rise to your responsibility". European chattel slavery and what the editors call "indigenous [Amerindian] slavery" p. In doing so, we can see three strong threads of evidence supporting the idea that the primary cause behind southern secession was the desire to maintain the institution of chattel slavery. Those threads are: 1 Five southern states wrote formal "Declaration[s] of Causes" during this time, stating explicitly that the reason for secession was to maintain slavery.

The cause of the civil war according to confederate leaders. Was he really saying they were better off under slavery, that he would have favored slavery back then, that they should have stayed in slavery, that he would like to see them in chattel slavery once again?

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